Monday, March 11, 2013

Unfinished business? Arms Trade Treaty Diplomatic Conference (2nd and final round) starts Monday 18 March 2013 in New York




(c) Jesper Waldersten

The renewed United Nations Conference on the Arms Trade Treaty will open on 18 March 2013 for a total of nine days. Optimism is running high that despite the very short time frame and the unseemly collapse of negotiations in July 2012, an agreement can be secured this time around.
 
In his opening address to the July 2012 diplomatic conference, the UN Secretary-General said that it was ‘a disgrace’ that no multilateral treaty ‘of global scope’ addresses conventional arms transfers. He is absolutely right. But we don’t need an agreement for the sake of an agreement, we need an agreement that will work. This means that within a decade human rights abuses arising from the irresponsible transfer of weapons should have measurably reduced.
 
How can this be achieved? First and foremost by closing the main loopholes in the July 2012 text that will form the basis of negotiations. There are at least five in our view. 


  1. First and foremost, Article 5, paragraph 2 as a whole, or at the very least the first sentence of the paragraph which states that ‘The implementation of this Treaty shall not prejudice obligations undertaken with regard to other instruments’, and should be deleted. It is potentially the single biggest loophole in the entire treaty. It appears to allow a state party to simply contract out of its obligations by deciding, for example, that a state-to-state contract to sell or otherwise transfer conventional arms will override the obligations in Article 4 and potentially even Article 3 of the draft Arms Trade Treaty (ATT).
  2. Second, Article 23 (Relations with States not party to this Treaty) should be deleted. The provision implies that the ATT would generally only apply between States Parties. Therefore, to escape the reach of its provisions, a state that wishes to misuse arms simply has to not ratify the treaty. 
  3. Third, the wording of Article 3, paragraph 3 of the July 2012 text needs to be brought in line with customary law. This requires two changes. Customary law on state responsibility requires only knowledge that a proposed arms transfer would facilitate international crimes for complicity to be established. The draft provision requires specific intent, a far higher standard. The wording should be redrafted to meet the lower customary law standard.
  4. Fourth, the other change to Article 3, paragraph 3 concerns war crimes. Under customary law, war crimes committed in a non-international armed conflict include indiscriminate attacks (not just intentional attacks against civilians but also those that cause excessive civilian harm). Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions — to which the July 2012 text specifically refers — is limited to mistreatment of persons in the power of a party to the conflict (i.e. abuse of internees, detainees, or prisoners). The conduct of hostilities in an armed conflict is more comprehensively regulated under international custom and the wording of the draft provision needs to reflect this.
  5. Fifth, the term ‘overriding’ in Article 4, paragraph 5, should be replaced to ensure that the standard does not depend on interpreting an ill-defined notion of ‘peace and security’. Alternatively, peace and security should be explicitly de-linked from the determination that a proposed transfer that would likely be used for serious violations of human rights or humanitarian law should not be authorised.
To suggest that the stakes are high for this diplomatic conference is almost trite. The United Nations disarmament machinery is once more on trial (and the jury is unlikely to be forgiving its trespasses). Moreover, certain states appear willing to sacrifice principle in order to secure an agreement, any agreement. But if this is not to amount to Neville Chamberlain in 1938 brandishing a piece of paper on his return from Munich and proclaiming ‘peace in our time’ they will need to be given some backbone (and warned of the political consequences of lack of courage). Civil society will need to be especially vigilant and effective in this regard. As Augustus Hare famously remarked, ‘Half the failures off this world arise from pulling in one’s horse as it is leaping.’ Let us not make that mistake. Yes, friends, the stakes are high.

20 comments:

  1. "The entire ATT is a deeply unserious effort that rests on the idea that treaties are merely expressions of shared aspirations, and that a brief treaty can do what years of U.N. Security Council resolutions have failed to do—make the world’s autocracies live up to the standards of the democracies."

    - Ted Bromund 18 March 2013

    Here is Mr. Bromund's extremely detailed explanation for why the ATT is so unserious, and why from an American national interests point of view its just a bad idea.

    http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/03/the-us-cannot-fix-the-un-arms-trade-treaty

    ReplyDelete
  2. Here is the pdf version of the Bromund Analysis:

    http://s3.amazonaws.com/thf_media/2013/pdf/bg2774.pdf

    ReplyDelete
  3. I just came to your post and reading above thing it is very impressive me and it is very nice blog. Thanks a lot for sharing this.

    Dominican Republic Transfers

    ReplyDelete
  4. Your content shows the power, I’m about to add this to my bookmarks.
    alexander begum

    ReplyDelete
  5. Nice answers in replace of the question with real point of view and explaining about that.www.businesstradelines.net/

    ReplyDelete
  6. I enjoyed reading your article... full of humor and knowledge
    Info site for Schumann Resonance Information

    ReplyDelete
  7. Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Procurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocacia-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, OAB/PE 20735 - LADRAO - BANDIDO - TRAFICANTE DE ARMAS.
    Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Procurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocacia-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, OAB/PE 20735 - LADRAO - BANDIDO - TRAFICANTE DE ARMAS.
    Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Procurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocacia-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo. OAB/PE 20735 - ADVOGADO LADRAO. BANDIDO - TRAFICANTE DE ARMAS. Página inicial do LinkedIn O que é o LinkedIn? Cadastre-se hoje mesmo Entrar Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Igor Montarroyos rocurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocaciade Sousa P-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brasil Administração governamental Anterior CHESF Formaçãatura de Pernambuco 86 conexões Cadasto acadêmica Escola Superior de Magistrr Igor. É grátis! Faça como 300e-se no LinkedIn e acesse o perfil completo de milhões de profissionais e cadastre-se no LinkedIn para compartilhar conexões, ideias e oportunidades. Visualize quem vocês conhecem em comum Solicite uma apresentação Entre em contato direto com Igor Visualize o perfil completo de Igor Histórico profissional Experiência Procurador da Fazenda Nacional Advocacia-Geral da União setembro de 2008 – até o momento (6 anos 5 meses) Procurador na Divisão de Dívida Ativa da União - DIDAU perante a Procuradoria Regional da Fazenda Nacional da 3ª Região.CHESF Advogado CHESF dezembro de 2002 – setembro de 2008 (5 anos 10 meses) Idiomas Inglês Espanhol Alemão Competências Administrative Law Tax Law Litigation Legal Research Mediation English Public Law Tax Legal Advice Power Point Microsoft Word Spanish Microsoft Office Public Speaking Corporate Law Visualizar + 2 Formação acadêmica Escola Superior de Magistratura de Pernambuco Especialista, Direito Processual Civil 2005 – 2006 Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Bacharel, Direito1997 – 2002 Visualize o perfil completo de Igor para...Ver quem vocês conhecem em comum Solicitar uma apresentação Entrar em contato direto com Igor Veja o perfil completo de Igor Essa pessoa chamada Igor Montarroyos de Sousa não é quem você procura? Visualizar outros resultados com o mesmo nome Pesquisa por nome Mais de 300 milhões de profissionais já estão no LinkedIn. Encontre quem você conhece.Por exemplo: Jeff Weiner Procurar usuários por país LinkedIn Corporation© 2014 Contrato do Usuário Política de Privacidade do LinkedIn Diretrize Posté par Igor Montarroyos à 13:05 - ADVOGADO LADRAO - Commentarios [0] - Permalien [#] Tags : Advogado Brasil OAB/PE 20735 Igor Montarroyos de Sousa GOOGLE Igor Montarroyos de Sousa - Procurador da Fazenda Nacional OAB/PE 20735.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Procurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocacia-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, OAB/PE 20735 - LADRAO - BANDIDO - TRAFICANTE DE ARMAS.
      Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Procurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocacia-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, OAB/PE 20735 - LADRAO - BANDIDO - TRAFICANTE DE ARMAS.
      Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Procurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocacia-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo. OAB/PE 20735 - ADVOGADO LADRAO. BANDIDO - TRAFICANTE DE ARMAS. Página inicial do LinkedIn O que é o LinkedIn? Cadastre-se hoje mesmo Entrar Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Igor Montarroyos rocurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocaciade Sousa P-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brasil Administração governamental Anterior CHESF Formaçãatura de Pernambuco 86 conexões Cadasto acadêmica Escola Superior de Magistrr Igor. É grátis! Faça como 300e-se no LinkedIn e acesse o perfil completo de milhões de profissionais e cadastre-se no LinkedIn para compartilhar conexões, ideias e oportunidades. Visualize quem vocês conhecem em comum Solicite uma apresentação Entre em contato direto com Igor Visualize o perfil completo de Igor Histórico profissional Experiência Procurador da Fazenda Nacional Advocacia-Geral da União setembro de 2008 – até o momento (6 anos 5 meses) Procurador na Divisão de Dívida Ativa da União - DIDAU perante a Procuradoria Regional da Fazenda Nacional da 3ª Região.CHESF Advogado CHESF dezembro de 2002 – setembro de 2008 (5 anos 10 meses) Idiomas Inglês Espanhol Alemão Competências Administrative Law Tax Law Litigation Legal Research Mediation English Public Law Tax Legal Advice Power Point Microsoft Word Spanish Microsoft Office Public Speaking Corporate Law Visualizar + 2 Formação acadêmica Escola Superior de Magistratura de Pernambuco Especialista, Direito Processual Civil 2005 – 2006 Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Bacharel, Direito1997 – 2002 Visualize o perfil completo de Igor para...Ver quem vocês conhecem em comum Solicitar uma apresentação Entrar em contato direto com Igor Veja o perfil completo de Igor Essa pessoa chamada Igor Montarroyos de Sousa não é quem você procura? Visualizar outros resultados com o mesmo nome Pesquisa por nome Mais de 300 milhões de profissionais já estão no LinkedIn. Encontre quem você conhece.Por exemplo: Jeff Weiner Procurar usuários por país LinkedIn Corporation© 2014 Contrato do Usuário Política de Privacidade do LinkedIn Diretrize Posté par Igor Montarroyos à 13:05 - ADVOGADO LADRAO - Commentarios [0] - Permalien [#] Tags : Advogado Brasil OAB/PE 20735 Igor Montarroyos de Sousa GOOGLE Igor Montarroyos de Sousa - Procurador da Fazenda Nacional OAB/PE 20735.

      Delete
    2. Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Procurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocacia-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, OAB/PE 20735 - LADRAO - BANDIDO - TRAFICANTE DE ARMAS.
      Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Procurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocacia-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, OAB/PE 20735 - LADRAO - BANDIDO - TRAFICANTE DE ARMAS.
      Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Procurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocacia-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo. OAB/PE 20735 - ADVOGADO LADRAO. BANDIDO - TRAFICANTE DE ARMAS. Página inicial do LinkedIn O que é o LinkedIn? Cadastre-se hoje mesmo Entrar Igor Montarroyos de Sousa Igor Montarroyos rocurador da Fazenda Nacional na Advocaciade Sousa P-Geral da União São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brasil Administração governamental Anterior CHESF Formaçãatura de Pernambuco 86 conexões Cadasto acadêmica Escola Superior de Magistrr Igor. É grátis! Faça como 300e-se no LinkedIn e acesse o perfil completo de milhões de profissionais e cadastre-se no LinkedIn para compartilhar conexões, ideias e oportunidades. Visualize quem vocês conhecem em comum Solicite uma apresentação Entre em contato direto com Igor Visualize o perfil completo de Igor Histórico profissional Experiência Procurador da Fazenda Nacional Advocacia-Geral da União setembro de 2008 – até o momento (6 anos 5 meses) Procurador na Divisão de Dívida Ativa da União - DIDAU perante a Procuradoria Regional da Fazenda Nacional da 3ª Região.CHESF Advogado CHESF dezembro de 2002 – setembro de 2008 (5 anos 10 meses) Idiomas Inglês Espanhol Alemão Competências Administrative Law Tax Law Litigation Legal Research Mediation English Public Law Tax Legal Advice Power Point Microsoft Word Spanish Microsoft Office Public Speaking Corporate Law Visualizar + 2 Formação acadêmica Escola Superior de Magistratura de Pernambuco Especialista, Direito Processual Civil 2005 – 2006 Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Bacharel, Direito1997 – 2002 Visualize o perfil completo de Igor para...Ver quem vocês conhecem em comum Solicitar uma apresentação Entrar em contato direto com Igor Veja o perfil completo de Igor Essa pessoa chamada Igor Montarroyos de Sousa não é quem você procura? Visualizar outros resultados com o mesmo nome Pesquisa por nome Mais de 300 milhões de profissionais já estão no LinkedIn. Encontre quem você conhece.Por exemplo: Jeff Weiner Procurar usuários por país LinkedIn Corporation© 2014 Contrato do Usuário Política de Privacidade do LinkedIn Diretrize Posté par Igor Montarroyos à 13:05 - ADVOGADO LADRAO - Commentarios [0] - Permalien [#] Tags : Advogado Brasil OAB/PE 20735 Igor Montarroyos de Sousa GOOGLE Igor Montarroyos de Sousa - Procurador da Fazenda Nacional OAB/PE 20735.

      Delete

  8. Hello, Do you need a loan from The most trusted and reliable company
    in the world? if yes then contact us now for we offer loan to all
    categories of seekers be it companies or for staff usage. We offer
    loan at 3% interest rate, Contact us via email:
    mohanmendcompany01@gmail.com

    (1) Full Name
    (2) Full Address
    (3) Country
    (4) Age
    (5) Occupation
    (6) Tell phone number
    (7) Sex:
    (8) Loan Amount needed:
    (9) Loan Duration

    Email us at: mohanmendcompany01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  9. Do you need Finance?
    Are you looking for Finance?
    Are you looking for a money to enlarge your business?
    We help individuals and companies to obtain loan for business
    expanding and to setup a new business ranging any amount. Get a loan at affordable interest rate of 3%, Do you need this cash/loan for business and to clear your bills? Then send us an email now for more information contact us now via Email:maxcreditfinance@googlemail.com

    ReplyDelete
  10. PLEASE READ PLEASE READ PLEASE READ
    Hello everyone, i would like to share my experience on this platform. i have been hearing of Blank Atm for a while and i applied through a few people but i was scammed, not until i found Mr George who saved me from scammers, i got my blank ATM card in 5 days after application and tried the encrypted card in an ATM machine and pos cash store to my greatest surprise i was able to withdraw €3000 and that was the daily rate i applied for in total i have made a withdrawal of €30000. to be honest there is no risk involved the card is not traceable and has an infrared signal that blocks off CCTV during your withdrawals. i just payed my daughters tuition fee and cleared my mortgage debts, i am also richer and started a business that is doing fine. Mr George is really a life saver and he is very genuine. You can contact him with this email address: blankatm402@gmail.com
    Best wishes

    ReplyDelete
  11. Expert completes and talk can correspondingly be seen on various bits of international news. You can examine for after essayists and specialists from around the world at whatever point the organizing is impeccable. medios independientes

    ReplyDelete
  12. WE OFFER LOAN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR EVERYONE APPLY NOW
    Do you need a Loan?
    Are you looking for Finance?
    Are you looking for a Loan to enlarge your business?
    I think you have come to the right place.
    We offer Loans at low interest rate.
    Interested people should please contact us on
    For immediate response to your application, Kindly
    reply to this emails below only.
    Whats app +918256953815
    firstfinance000@gmail.com
    Please, do provide us with the Following information if interested.

    1) Full Name:………
    2) Gender:………
    3) Loan Amount Needed:………
    4) Loan Duration:………
    5) Country:………
    6) Home Address:………
    7) Mobile Number:………
    8)Monthly Income:…………………
    9)Occupation:………………………
    )Which site did you here about us…………………

    Thanks and Best Regards.
    firstfinance000@gmail.com
    +918256953815


    ReplyDelete
  13. Hordle Finance B.V (UK) Limited provides personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally. Just one simple process, We make financing your business growth simple, transparent, and fair.


    No hidden fees or surprises
    Simple approval process
    Fast business loans funded in just 2-3 business days
    Low Interest rate of 2%
    Previous Bankruptcies accepted
    No credit checks/collateral required
    Flexible repayment schedules
    Client information sheet & KYC required for all loan applicant irrespective of location/country
    Loan Duration from 1 year - 20 years maximum
    Grace period of 12 - 24 months for large business loans/working capital
    Funding/Financing is not restricted to any geographical location or country


    Simple paperwork, quick approvals, and flexible repayment schedules. For further details, contact us via email, telephone, Skype. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome onboard bring their clients and work with us and are 100% protected adequately protected. In complete confidence, We shall work together for the benefits of all parties involved, Looking forward to rendering the best of our services to all esteemed clientele globally.


    Hordle Finance B.V
    Website: https://www.hordlefinance.com/
    Email: finance@hordlefinance.com
    Tel: +44 2038-076-070
    Whatsapp: ++44 7901-191-353
    ONE BANK STREET, CANARY WHARF,
    41 Tower Hill, LONDON, GB-LND E14 4SG
    Company Registration No. FC029166

    ReplyDelete
  14. Hordle Finance B.V (UK) Limited provides personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally. Just one simple process, We make financing your business growth simple, transparent, and fair.


    No hidden fees or surprises
    Simple approval process
    Fast business loans funded in just 2-3 business days
    Low Interest rate of 2%
    Previous Bankruptcies accepted
    No credit checks/collateral required
    Flexible repayment schedules
    Client information sheet & KYC required for all loan applicant irrespective of location/country
    Loan Duration from 1 year - 20 years maximum
    Grace period of 12 - 24 months for large business loans/working capital
    Funding/Financing is not restricted to any geographical location or country


    Simple paperwork, quick approvals, and flexible repayment schedules. For further details, contact us via email, telephone, Skype. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome onboard bring their clients and work with us and are 100% protected adequately protected. In complete confidence, We shall work together for the benefits of all parties involved, Looking forward to rendering the best of our services to all esteemed clientele globally.


    Hordle Finance B.V
    Website: https://www.hordlefinance.com/
    Email: finance@hordlefinance.com
    Tel: +44 2038-076-070
    Whatsapp: ++44 7901-191-353
    ONE BANK STREET, CANARY WHARF,
    41 Tower Hill, LONDON, GB-LND E14 4SG
    Company Registration No. FC029166

    ReplyDelete
  15. Hordle Finance B.V (UK) Limited provides personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally. Just one simple process, We make financing your business growth simple, transparent, and fair.


    No hidden fees or surprises
    Simple approval process
    Fast business loans funded in just 2-3 business days
    Low Interest rate of 2%
    Previous Bankruptcies accepted
    No credit checks/collateral required
    Flexible repayment schedules
    Client information sheet & KYC required for all loan applicant irrespective of location/country
    Loan Duration from 1 year - 20 years maximum
    Grace period of 12 - 24 months for large business loans/working capital
    Funding/Financing is not restricted to any geographical location or country


    Simple paperwork, quick approvals, and flexible repayment schedules. For further details, contact us via email, telephone, Skype. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome onboard bring their clients and work with us and are 100% protected adequately protected. In complete confidence, We shall work together for the benefits of all parties involved, Looking forward to rendering the best of our services to all esteemed clientele globally.


    Hordle Finance B.V
    Website: https://www.hordlefinance.com/
    Email: finance@hordlefinance.com
    Tel: +44 2038-076-070
    Whatsapp: ++44 7901-191-353
    ONE BANK STREET, CANARY WHARF,
    41 Tower Hill, LONDON, GB-LND E14 4SG
    Company Registration No. FC029166

    ReplyDelete

  16. Great specific article directly to the point. Many articles I come across these days do not really provide anything that attracts others as yours, but believe me the way you interact is literally awesome I do respect that so much. I will instantly get your link and stay informed of any updates you make and as well take the advantage to share some vital information regarding the. Hacked credit card numbers with cvv and zip code Here are easy ways, you can get a credit cards and code with high balance which can be use world-wild,I will also take the advantage to ask for your permission to join our TELEGRAM GROUP

    ReplyDelete
  17. Buy cheap nembutal pentobarbital pills, liquid, powder, SECONAL FOR SALE ONLINE, SECONAL and more online.
    Buy nembutal online, order nembutal online, purchase cheap nembutal online.

    Contact us at:  arcmeds4@gmail.com

    Are you terminally sick , weak , depressed and want to give up your life from the pain of the world? Have you been searching for a reliable and efficient means to get peaceful death without loosing your money ? Have you ever heard about Nembutal Pentobarbital Sodium Solution Peaceful exit medication? We are here to provide you with a peaceful and reliable solution.

    If you are looking to Buy Nembutal Online, then you are at the right place to make your purchase. Look no further, contact us and purchase Nembutal Online at a very affordable price. We have over 9 years of experience supplying nembutal to United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, Africa, Asia with 99.9% successful delivery.

    We are determined in giving real hope and everlasting rest to the terminally ill. We sell Nembutal Powder, Oral Nembutal Liquid and Nembutal Pills. Just providing your age and your weight, we will be able to provide you accurate information about Price, shipping, and payment.

    Note that, we do 100% discrete and express shipping of Nembutal world wide and have a refund/return policy to ensure maximum satisfaction of our clients. If we do not treat you well, tell us and if we treat you good tell the world.
    We are available 24/7 to answer all your question regarding HOW TO BUY NEMBUTAL ONLINE, WHERE TO BUY NEMBUTAL, BEST TYPE OF NEMBUTAL TO BUY etc. Simply send us an email and one of our customer service consultants will get back to you on time.

    * Nembutal suicide dose,

    * How to obtain Seconal,

    * How to buy nembutal Online,

    * Purchase nembutal Online,

    * Nembutal by mail order,

    * How to obtain pentobarbital,

    * Best drugs for suicide overdose,
    * seconal nembutal,

    * nembutal no prescription,

    * nembutal pentobarbital sodium,

    * nembutal pills online,

    * nembutal suppliers,

    We are a legitimate supplier for Nembutal. End the suffering, End the pain and End your sorrow by purchasing Nembutal online from the best nembutal suppliers. 100% Fast, Reliable, Trustworthy, the product being of high quality, everywhere accessible, extremely pure, Nembutal powder as well as liquid and pills ,the best decision to make. Dying with peacefulness, Dying with dignity, Peaceful euthanasia, Peaceful mind. Consumption and order to be placed according to the need.

    Contact us at:  arcmeds4@gmail.com

    Visit our website :

    https://nembutalcenter.com/


    ReplyDelete
  18. A confirmed duplicate of a birth endorsement that can regularly be utilised for movement, visa, confirmation of citizenship, government backed retirement, driver's permit, school enlistment, individual ID and other legitimate purposes. Birth Certificates are accessible for occasions that happened in New York City from 1910 to introduce.
    It is very easy to obtain a real birth certificate now without being a citizen of the country through
    10 MAJOR WAYS WHICH YOU ARE GOING TO LEARN ON THIS ARTICLE ABOUT BIRTH CERTIFICATE many people do not know that birth certificate is one of the most important and easiest document to acquire which will also help to get the most important and difficult ones like passport, drivers license, etc.

    ReplyDelete